The belief that government is based on an agreement between rulers and citizens is known as social contract theory. This theory has been a cornerstone of modern political philosophy since the 17th century.

Social contract theory suggests that individuals voluntarily give up some of their freedoms in exchange for protection and security provided by the government. This agreement forms the basis of the government`s authority, and it is the responsibility of the government to uphold its end of the deal.

The origins of social contract theory can be traced back to philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Hobbes argued that individuals need a strong central authority to prevent chaos and conflict, while Locke believed that government should protect the natural rights of individuals. Rousseau`s social contract theory centered on the idea that individuals must give up some of their freedom to live in a society that benefits all.

Social contract theory has profound implications for the role of government in society. It suggests that the government exists to serve the needs of the people, and that individuals have a right to hold their rulers accountable for their actions. This idea has been used as a basis for democratic government around the world.

However, social contract theory has also been criticized for its emphasis on the individual over the collective good. Critics argue that it can lead to a sense of entitlement and a lack of concern for the well-being of others in society.

Overall, social contract theory remains an important concept in modern political philosophy. It helps us understand the relationship between citizens and their government, and provides a framework for thinking about the responsibilities of those in positions of power.